Journal of Education Policy, 16 1 , 67— Jackson, D. Mentored residential writing retreats: A leadership strategy to develop skills and generate outcomes in writing for publication. Nurse Education Today, 29 , 9— Lee, A. Writing groups, change and academic identity: Research development as local practice.
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Studies in Higher Education, 28 , — Lillis, T. Academic writing in a global context: The politics and practices of publishing in English. Abingdon: Routledge. Lucas, L. Research management and research cultures: Power and productivity. Lucas Eds. MacLeod, I. Time is not enough: Promoting strategic engagement with writing for publication. Studies in Higher Education , 37 5 , — Mayrath, M. Attributions of productive authors in educational psychology journals.
Educational Psychology Review, 20 , 41— McGrail, M. Publish or perish: A systematic review of interventions to increase academic publication rates. Higher Education Research and Development, 25 1 , 19— Moore, S. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 27 , — Murray, R. The Zambian educational system comprises a multi structure that includes the Early Childhood Care, Development and Education ECCDE , basic education, high education, literacy education, and tertiary education illustrated in Ministry of Education is in charge and responsible for the operation of primary and secondary education, training and universities.
Despite pre-schooling having been given so many advocacies by the Ministry, the greater number of pre-schools is in private hands making it an expensive level of education. The Ministry is also responsible for the formulation of education polices. The recent major education policies stated in the Strategic Plan and The Fifth National Development Plan FNDP are broad operational frameworks, which are intended to guide the attainment of the goals and objectives of education in the country Educating Our Future, ; Silanda et al.
The policy document, Educating Our Future , is the most recent document formulated by the Ministry of Education. The policy of the Ministry is to provide quality education to all its citizens.
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This policy is guided by strategic polices that form the guiding principles within which education is delivered. These strategic policies include:. As the first step to the attainment of the goal of universal basic education the Ministry of Education will ensure that every child will have access to a minimum of seven years of good quality schooling in a school of parental choice MOE, , p. Hence it will seek to provide a comprehensive programme of study and school activities that will: - Promote the full and harmonious development of every pupil - Give some preparation for adult working life - Serve as a basis for further training; and - Lead to the level of competence necessary for proceeding to high school MOE, , p.
The factors impacting on the implementation of educational policies in Zambia are many some of which, poor economy, inadequate supply of teachers, curriculum relevance, pedagogy rote learning rather than discovery learning , high rates of unemployment especially after primary and secondary school Achola, , MOE, ; and FNDP , This study insists that education is one means of empowering the women to take control of their lives and those of their children however, the Zambian education system is a case in point.
Ewen has rightly suggested that Zambian formal education has not helped much in terms of providing mass skilling for the nation. He lists a number of points to show the limitations of the education system. See Figure 2. Such an education system that exhibits little or has no significance to the cultural or socio-economic environments may not be appreciated, much more when compared with the traditional education system, which is rigorous and involves experiential learning within the context of the learner.
Kaziba declares that it is only through education that the female population of Africa can be empowered. However, despite the importance of the education of girls being advocated for decades in many forums and conferences, Zambia still registers disturbing statistics in this matter. Access to basic education grades 1—7 has improved, which is attributed to free education provided for that level.
However, despite such improved statistics, significant disparity between male and female pupils still exist and should be cause for worry and a key concern by all concerned. Girls represented a GER of Enrolment rates have improved greatly showing more girls than boys enrolling in grade 1. For example in , , pupils enrolled in grade 1 of which , were female and , were male MOE, , p. Table 2 below shows gender disparity in basic school enrolment, with the girls trailing behind the boys despite improvement at primary level. These statistics could suggest poor female progressing to further education.
The table below table 3 shows the low enrolment level in all provinces in Zambia except for Lusaka and Copperbelt, which are highly urban. While the statistics may suggest a number of reasons such as poor infrastructure, poor teaching and learning resources in the rural areas, the statistics do not show the actual populations of the individual provinces which could be higher in the highly urbanised provinces. However, Central Statistics Office states that more than 50 percent of Zambians live in the rural area. Note the total numbers for both girls and boys nationally showing the low enrolment for the girls.
Zambia has three entrance levels into education. These are: grade 1, grade 10 entrances and entry into tertiary institutions that include colleges and university.
The move has improved the enrolment rate. Table 4 shows the GER in high school by gender and province. The outstanding disparities with more boys enrolled than girls in high schools are noteworthy. Interestingly, Eastern Province in bold ranks as the worst in the female enrolment ratio, indicating how few females progress to high school in the province.
An interesting observation can be noted between Eastern and Northern Provinces.
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The two are neighbours but Northern Province seems to be doing better than Eastern Province as observed in Tables 4 and 5 a situation that may require further research. While the statistics show Northern Province ahead of Eastern Province, the statistics do not show the population of pupils enrolled in the particular year or the population of the two different provinces. In , up to 8, girls against 14, boys completed grade 12 with school certificates. In , 10, girls and 17, boys completed grade 12 with school certificates. In , , boys and , girls aged between 16 and 18 years were out of school Kasonde et al.
Of significant note in these statistics is the huge margin between the girls and the boys out of school and completing secondary school with school certificates. The dropout rates in both basic and high schools in the country are still significant.
The Effects of Cultural Traditions on the Education of women
While more girls are able to access education easily, the retention and completion rates are still low. Eastern Province seems to be among the worst provinces in the country with a low survival rate. The survival rate  in table 4 shows this activity. CAMFED Zambia, argues that the transition of girls from grade 4 to grade 5 those enrolled at 7 years would be 10 or 11 years and the late entries could be 13 to 14 years is particularly difficult because of a number of factors, such as early or forced marriages, pregnancies and due to traditional teachings that they receive during initiation rites when they reach puberty.
Tables 6 and 7, show the dropout rate for both basic and high schools and the disparity across provinces and by gender. The statistics seem to indicate the disproportion with more girls dropping out than boys. The difference between genders is quite alarming in some cases raising concern on the state of the girls. For example, table 7 for North Western Province 7. Although statistics show Eastern Province faring better on the dropout rates in comparison with Northern and North-Western Provinces, more girls than boys could have dropped out of school.
Further still, the enrolment percentages for Eastern, Northern and North-Western Province could be different hence producing the noted disparity. The statistics given are inconclusive and may not give full information regarding the drop-out rates.
For example, the statistics do not show the total numbers enrolled in each province. The statistics suggest an investigation into the reasons for the number of dropouts. Among the reasons that have been raised as contributing to such a phenomenon include pregnancies, early or forced marriages and poverty. Such factors could contribute to the high dropout rate Gachukia, Gachukia further attributes the multiple roles that girls tend to play in society as contributing to their late enrolment, absenteeism and consequently dropout tendencies.
However, recent statistics still show that female participation in education is low in comparison with their male counterparts. For example statistics reveal that 48 percent of women aged and 75 percent of men aged can read and write while 79 percent of women and 90 percent of men of the same age group in the urban area can read and write MOE, Table 8 shows the discrepancy in the literacy  rate between male and female population and between the rural and urban settings.
Eastern Province had the lowest rate at However, Ewen has argued that many of the primary school students drop out without attaining functional literacy and hence may simply slip back into ignorance. Commenting on illiteracy rates FNDP , points out that rates are higher among women 75 percent than men 65 percent. Remarking on the same matter, Muranga revealed that drop outs tend to have a low academic aspiration, which she stressed, could be as a result of upholding a traditional attitude to cultural norms and practices.
In , the retention rates were 78 percent for boys and 66 percent for girls. The statistics show a staggering improvement for girls and boys but the gap between the two sexes remains the same. Zambia has boasted an improved economic growth of 5.