Sigmund Freud Theory
Forrester develops proposals that rest upon a comparison of two perspectives on everyday parent-child interaction taken from the same data corpus - one informed by conversation analysis and ethnomethodology, the other by psychoanalytic developmental psychology. Ultimately, what is significant for attaining membership within any culture is gradually being able to display an orientation towards both domains - doing and feeling, or social-action and affect. Psychology of the Image Michael A Forrester.
Bloggat om Early Social Interaction. The theoretical positions associated with these domains - social-action and emotion - provide very different accounts of human development and this book examines why this is the case. Through a longitudinal video-recorded study of one child learning how to talk, Michael A. Forrester develops proposals that rest upon a comparison of two perspectives on everyday parent-child interaction taken from the same data corpus - one informed by conversation analysis and ethnomethodology, the other by psychoanalytic developmental psychology.
Ultimately, what is significant for attaining membership within any culture is gradually being able to display an orientation towards both domains - doing and feeling, or social-action and affect. Speculations about the nature of language are presented that emphasize the origin of internal working models and of representations in general in early sensorimotor and emotional experiences with a caregiver. It is argued that language and symbolic thought may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically embodied, built on a foundation of gestures and actions, and are thus profoundly influenced by the experience of early physical interaction with the primary object.
Finally, the clinical and research implications of these ideas are discussed. PubMed Central.
Systematic research on psychoanalytic treatments has been limited by several factors, including a belief that clinical experience can demonstrate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, rendering systematic research unnecessary, the view that psychoanalytic research would be difficult or impossible to accomplish, and a concern that research would distort the treatment being delivered. In recent years, however, many psychoanalysts have recognized the necessity of research in order to obtain a more balanced assessment of the role of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in a contemporary treatment armamentarium, as well as to allow appropriate evaluation and potentially greater acceptance by the broader mental health and medical communities.
The results of the RCT demonstrated the efficacy of PFPP in treating panic disorder, and also demonstrated that a psychoanalytic treatment can be systematically evaluated in a mode consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Two specific features of the methodology, the development of the treatment manual and the operationalization of the adherence instrument, both core building blocks of contemporary psychotherapy outcome research, and their implications for psychoanalytic research are discussed in greater depth.
The theoretical, clinical, and educational implications of the PFPP studies are elaborated, and suggestions are made for pursuing further outcome research of psychoanalytic treatments. By Antonino Ferro. New York: Routledge, By Giuseppe Civitarese.
By Giuseppe Civitarese; translated by Ian Harvey. London: Karnac, The Analytic Field and Its Transformations. By Antonino Ferro and Giuseppe Civitarese.
- The Moral Development of the Child: An Integrated Model;
- Second Variety (Collected Stories: Vol 2).
- Early social interaction : a case comparison of developmental pragmatics and psychoanalytic theory.
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The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy. This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment.
Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication.
It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic and recommend further investigation. Psychoanalytic Criticism and Teaching Shakespeare. Presents a brief overview of previous psychoanalytically based theories of Shakespeare's plays, particularly "Hamlet," and defends the notion of introducing undergraduates to psychoanalytically based criticism because of the insights it may give students into their own lives.
Compassion and altruism in psychoanalytic theory : an evolutionary analysis of self psychology. Freud's creation of psychoanalysis was, in part, a reaction to the societal, religious morality that denied the ubiquitous drivenness that repeatedly confronted him, the essential animal nature of homo sapiens as had been recently made clear by the theory of evolution. For example, Freud wrote an aggression, It is a general principle. This is true of the whole animal kingdom, from which men have no business to exclude themselves.
Though evolutionary theory was in its infancy, incompletely understood even by its creator, Freud's commitment to facing its truths led to an unswerving stance in reaction to attempts to deny the narcissistic injury inherent in his psychoanalytic discoveries. Yet, as we have seen, this evolutionary creation--the human psyche--cannot be fully accounted for utilizing the vicissitudes of Freud's two instincts. Like this metaphor, in the case of the selfish, yet social, human animal, you cannot have a one-sided coin.
Both drives and relationships are biologically inherent and have their structuralizing effect upon the supraordinate self. As human animals we are inherently in conflict over our irreducible biologically based driven, asocial needs i. Out of the consulting room and into the world: hermeneutic dialogue, phronesis, and psychoanalytic theory as practice. One of the relics of positivism has been an underappreciation of the moral and ethical dimensions of psychoanalytic theory and practice. In a positivist metapsychology, cure and therapeutic gain were often defined instrumentally, with relatively little consideration given to aspects of human experience e.
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Conceptual and paradigmatic shifts in psychoanalysis have occurred, in part, because of the inability of the classical model to provide a language that adequately captures deeply felt human values and beliefs. Aided by hermeneutic and postmodern influences, many contemporary psychoanalytic theories are beginning to focus greater attention on the notion that analytic therapy is empowered by a set of ethical convictions, beliefs, and commitments, which are tied to a certain understanding of the good life. Along these lines, the author argues that developing a fresh understanding of the moral and ethical dimensions of psychoanalysis requires elaborating a new ontology of human subjectivity and social life.
The author offers a sketch of how this gargantuan task might be started by integrating psychoanalysis within a hermeneutic perspective on dialogue, by suggesting that it would be helpful to view psychoanalysis as promoting Aristotelian practical wisdom or phronesis, and by rethinking psychoanalytic theory and interpretation as a form of practice.
Subliminal stimulation research and its implications for psychoanalytic theory and treatment. Repressed traumatic emotional memories are encoded in the amygdala, and they are unconsciously enacted through behavior, especially in the transference. In summary, childhood and other traumatic memories become encoded in the amygdala and are later enacted and expressed behaviorally, especially in the transference relationship.
Working through of the emotional trauma makes these implicit memories explicit and exposes them to adult judgment. When the therapist creates a condition of safety, old memories are reexperienced and detoxified. The memories are experienced as nonthreatening now, thus calming the amygdala and diminishing its activity. Biologically, new neural pathways from the cortex to the amygdala can be established, since the cortex is plastic.
This process is slow and may account for the need to repeatedly work through in analysis old conflicted relationships that had threatened security and survival. As imaging techniques improve, we may soon be able to evaluate therapy outcomes scientifically by measuring these actual brain changes. We are on the threshold of establishing a scientific psychoanalysis, as empirical research is providing us with data that integrate the mind and the brain.
Subliminal stimulation and brain imaging techniques provide us with important tools for developing an empirical base for psychoanalytic theory and treatment.
Michael Forrester | REFRAMING PSYCHOANALYSIS
These techniques were not available to Freud at the turn of the last century, and as we center the new millennium Freud's dream of psychoanalysis having a firm scientific foundation is becoming a reality. Psychoanalysis has both waged "hot" war on women overtly and "cold" war covertly over the years by colluding with cultural stereotypes offered as " theory ," starting with Freud and his Viennese circle. True freedom of thinking, however, broke through in Freud's originality even then, and from time to time subsequently in the history of the movement only to keep retreating.
Fritz Wittels's thesis on the "Child Woman" will exemplify Horneys , , and Jones's grounds for engaging in the "hot war" in the s and challenging the unselfconscious inbuilt denigration of women. This skirmish had little impact, however, in the New World up till the s. In the aftermath of the second wave of feminism, there were and are bursts of new thought about sex and gender that remain fragmented and unintegrated into general acceptance.
The contemporary situation has been more like a "cold" war waged by ennui in the field. A sexed and agendered theories of mind as a "no man's land" absorb an intense focus away from the sexual and gender specificities that were alive, contentious, and unresolved in Freud's libido theory. The third sociocultural wave of feminism, since the s, has refocused vitality on individuality, race, and varieties of sexual identity.
I identify the latter as the psychoanalytic space for a potential renewed interest in theorizing the female body within heterosexual, homosexual, queer, or transgendered individuals. The "wars" have shown how fruitless for peace and new discovery is the compulsive but still common close comparison between males and females developmentally. Female development is as fresh and unsettled a theoretical question as it once was with Freud. Psychoanalytic theory and loving God concepts: parent referencing versus self-referencing.
We investigated the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their parents' nurturance, their parents' permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness, and the students' own self-esteem. Although parents' nurturance, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness were related to participants' conceptions of God thus providing some support for psychoanalytic assertions , the variable of self-esteem far outweighed all other variables in accounting for the variance in God concepts.
These results suggest that self-referencing explanations better account for individuals' conceptions of God than do parent referencing i. One hundred years after Sigmund Freud's lectures in America: towards an integration of psychoanalytic theories and techniques within psychiatry.
The impact of Sigmund Freud's lectures in America in is discussed. Some of the roots of psychoanalysis and their contemporary relevance are addressed: neurological ideas, the discussions of the sexologists, and the degeneration theories at the turn of the twentieth century. Factors which led to the dominance of psychoanalysis in psychiatry included, in particular, its arguments against the hopelessness of degeneracy theories ;yet,by isolating itself from mainstream academic psychiatry and psychology,organized psychoanalysis itself contributed to its own subsequent marginalization.
Psychoanalytic application and psychoanalytic integrity. In this article, the author offers an analysis of psychoanalytic application, defined as the breaking of new conceptual ground in some field of knowledge whereby the new idea is conceived, and later articulated, with the aid of reference to analogous phenomena in psychoanalysis. It requires apt analogy based on competent understanding of the applied field and of psychoanalysis. Only when the relevant differences between the applied and psychoanalytic fields are grasped can the extent of certain parallels emerge.
The thinking by analogy that comprises psychoanalytic application may be intuitive and implicit, but should be susceptible of explicit theoretical elaboration that specifies, precisely, the point s of correspondence between psychoanalysis and the applied field in relation to a precise specification of their relevant differences. Applied psychotherapy at the interface of the internal and external worlds historically rooted in casework is employed as a model.
By analogy with Donnet's concept of the analytic site, the author proposes the concept of the psychodynamic case work site, and elaborates it for that applied field in order to elucidate the proposed principles of psychoanalytic application.
Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: the changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory. Bion moved psychoanalytic theory from Freud's theory of dream-work to a concept of dreaming in which dreaming is the central aspect of all emotional functioning. In this paper, I first review historical, theoretical, and clinical aspects of dreaming as seen by Freud and Bion.
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I then propose two interconnected ideas that I believe reflect Bion's split from Freud regarding the understanding of dreaming. Bion believed that all dreams are psychological works in progress and at one point suggested that all dreams contain elements that are akin to visual hallucinations. I explore and elaborate Bion's ideas that all dreams contain aspects of emotional experience that are too disturbing to be dreamt, and that, in analysis, the patient brings a dream with the hope of receiving the analyst's help in completing the unconscious work that was entirely or partially too disturbing for the patient to dream on his own.
Freud views dreams as mental phenomena with which to understand how the mind functions, but believes that dreams are solely the 'guardians of sleep,' and not, in themselves, vehicles for unconscious psychological work and growth until they are interpreted by the analyst.