As the listener is always within a social world, musical experience also involves relationships beyond just oneself and the music. We listen to music in a world shared with others, and the responsibilities we have to others place limitations on the ways that we experience music. Musical experience changes us and influ- ences our relationships with others. In the examination of musical experience I undertake throughout this book, I argue that a full account of musical expe- rience includes relationships with and responsibilities to others. If musical experience involves encounters with other people, I argue that explorations of musi- cal experience must take into consideration the ethical responsibilities that arise in that experience.
Warren Excerpt More information Introduction 3 than an attempt to completely delineate this complex term. What all the concepts in this list have in common is a set of guidelines for action that are imposed by an impersonal source. The laws of a nation or community are examples of morality. The issues of copyright and file sharing I mentioned above are in this terminology a discussion of morality — a set of rules — rather than ethics.
Guidelines for Ethical Conduct - American Musicological Society
Morality is cru- cial for societies, but — following Levinas — moral rules should rest upon ethical responsibilities. Ethical responsi- bility emerges in encounters with other people, and therefore cannot be reduced to abstract concepts or rules. Encountering another person places an obligation upon me to respond. Exactly what that responsibility is emerges from the encounter with that person. Levinas argues that our exis- tence involves ethical responsibilities to others.
According to Levinas, one ethical responsibility that emerges from an encounter with another person is our responsibility for their death. Ethical respon- sibilities can and should lay the groundwork for moral laws. Moral laws are not problematic in themselves as they allow for society to function, but these laws are not my focus.
In this book, therefore, I do not aim to delin- eate a list of moral actions surrounding music in other words, ways we should or should not act. Just as Levinas is interested in phenomenologi- cally describing the ethical responsibilities that arise in the encounter with an other, my interest is describing the role of musical experience in encoun- tering other people. If musical experience brings us into contact with other people, these encounters with others — following Levinas — place ethical responsibilities upon us that we must respond to.
Examining how musical experience creates encounters with others that lead to ethical responsibili- ties is the theme developed throughout this book. Warren Excerpt More information 4 Introduction In Chapter 1 I explore five models of musical meaning and their appli- cation to views about the relationship between music and ethics. I begin by challenging many conventional views of musical meaning that do not account for the inter-relational elements of music. The opposite view is also widely held, wherein musical meaning is completely relative to the subject.
Both of these views ignore the ways that culture shapes interpretations of music. Even identifying the influence of culture, though, does not get at the inter-relational nature of musical meaning. Culture does not exist without people, but as an abstract concept culture is impersonal. Musical meaning, as experienced, is not just influenced by culture, but is also tied to the individual people we come into contact with.
How music means for me is negotiated with cultural norms, personal experience and — as I argue in this book — relationships with and responsibilities to other people. Theorisation about the role of human relationships in musical mean- ing has a profound impact upon perceived relations of music and ethics. The idea that music intrinsically holds meaning, for example, leads to the view that listening to certain types of music can have an irresistible impact upon the action or morality of listeners.
I suggest that a more satisfactory account of music and ethics needs to consider the influence of music experience in the ways people experience and respond to other people. As the place of musical experience in human relation- ships is varied and complex, I leave it to each of the following chapters to explore the multiplicity of ways that relationships with and responsibilities to others are central to musical experience. Each of the first five chapters follows a similar trajectory, usually starting with a musical phenomenon and exploring ways others conceptualise the phenomenon before turning to an examination of musical experience.
Warren Excerpt More information Introduction 5 be treated differently if relationships and responsibilities are of central concern. In Chapter 2 I expand on musical meaning as experienced. Instead of aiming for a musical meaning reduced to a fixed definition, meaning as experienced begins with the ways music is taken as meaningful by people in the world. Since music is embedded in other activities and experiences, meaning as experienced must take into account the web of connections of life. Writing about or experiencing music is embedded in ways of being in the world.
Because all experience involves a complex web of connections, experien- tial musical meaning cannot be articulated completely. Words or other responses to music can serve to translate some of the ways that music is experienced, but they can never completely capture musical experience. Music is always in excess of any articulation of its meaning, suggesting that music introduces something to us beyond concepts encompassed by words.
Adequate accounts of musical meaning need to take into account the life world of those who experience music. Chapter 2 begins with an examination of some popularised claims about musical experience in neuroscience, and I argue that although neu- roscience is a valuable endeavour, it cannot fully explain musical experi- ence and is significantly limited in describing the inter-relational elements of musical experience.
I then turn to the phenomenology of music, argu- ing that phenomenology is helpful for describing how musical meaning is negotiated with other people and via standards of appropriateness formed through acquired knowledge.
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Exploring how my use of the word both draws from and differs from everyday usage assists opening the discussion about negotiation that I continue in the following chapters. Negotiations have an inter-relational element to them, and there is also the possibility for the exercise of power. Sometimes negotiation is of a system e. Warren Excerpt More information 6 Introduction conventions helps to reinforce them as conventions.
Challenging them can result in standards changing. Negotiation can involve intentional interac- tion and conflict, but in my use of the term negotiation also takes place in cooperative activity.
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For example, entrainment — the ability to coordinate rhythms with others — involves negotiation. I hear another person singing and adjust my timing to coordinate. What results is a sound that is made through negotiation. There are many contextual factors that frame musical experience and influence the negotiation of relationships. In Chapter 3 I expand on factors that frame the experience of music, and therefore affect the roles of music in human relationships. Write a customer review. Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery on millions of eligible domestic and international items, in addition to exclusive access to movies, TV shows, and more.
Back to top. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Audible Download Audio Books. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Radio broadcasters are obliged to pay amounts according to the time measured by the installed systems, but traditional Lalalandian tunes that do not underlie any copyright restrictions get a large part of the airplay in Lalaland.
However, the system incorrectly attributes most of the indigenous music as cover versions of Beatles songs. Broadcasters thus reduce the amount of time they broadcast local and other music, in order to reduce their costs. Is this fair towards local musicians? Does the technology unjustly discriminate against them? Example 4: The long tail. However, a large number of artists is never recommended by their systems, due to a lack of user data or other artefacts that are not completely understood.
The recommendation system incorporates state-of-the-art machine learning, and takes into account user data as well as the audio data of the recordings.
Music and Ethical Responsibility
Some Fiveland musicians complain about the fact that Spotetal never recommends them, and they claim that they lose larger amounts of money due to this situation. They demand an explanation for why they are discriminated against by Spotetal. Is this a case of discrimination, and if so, can it be avoided by re-designing the technology?
Jimetal have developed an algorithm that extracts features from audio recordings, and wonder how well it works for the problem of music genre recognition, i.
Jimetal know a dataset that has been widely applied for the evaluation of such systems. They use a standard experimental design with this benchmark dataset, and find their new feature to be very successful. Jimetal refine their feature extraction method, and successfully publish two conference papers and a journal article detailing their results. Sametal are working on the same problem, and wonder why the feature of Jimetal works so well. They attempt to reproduce the results of Jimetal, but have considerable trouble.
Sametal communicate these troubles with Jimetal. After some correspondence, it becomes apparent to Jimetal that their original experiments had an error that inflated their results, and that the benchmark dataset has a variety of flaws.
This invalidates the results in their three publications, and calls into question the outcomes of experiments in hundreds of publications that use the same dataset.