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Social and Political Philosophy categorize this paper. Applied ethics. History of Western Philosophy. Normative ethics. Philosophy of biology. Philosophy of language. Philosophy of mind. Philosophy of religion. The power of ontology is that it gives us the keys to unlock the way reality is understood, by taking as its object of study the actual being of things, matters, concepts, experiences, and words — essentially of everything.
Epistemology, or the study of knowledge, receives in our rationalist society more emphasis because it sets out to explain why we jointly decide that certain things are true, and others are not. Science, and the interpretation of scientific results, changes the way society acts at all stages of life. Axiology, or the study of value or of goodness, is definitely the philosophical strain out of these three that has received least attention, even though it is fundamentally linked to our actions in our daily lives.
The value of something can be seen as having intrinsic properties, valuable in its own right, or to have extrinsic properties, valuable for the sake of something else, which in turn can have intrinsic properties. But, that is how language works; certain meanings are assigned to certain words, and thereafter codified to be interpreted according to their accepted definition. Ontology is in post-positivist texts seen as describing the nature of reality Jennings, , rather than reality per se — this is to highlight that socially constructed realities can exist side by side without contradicting one another Saukko, It is therefore important for critical theorists to ground their ontology claims in their own social reality.
However, the roots of ontology reach much further back in philosophy than the modern use of it as a description of reality or realities. The philosophical strand that has most closely taken the study of the being of things and experiences as its focus, is Phenomenology. In his first major work, Being and Time, Heidegger proposed that the question about Being and the meaning of Being had been investigated since the times of Plato.
However, the mode of investigation had over time become confused and needed a different approach where the conventional way of addressing ontology was rejected Heidegger, Heidegger suggests that a pure phenomenology without any pre-cognition does not make sense, because an object, such as a piece of equipment, does not have any properties, or an essence, that would uncover its meaning in a transcendental sense.
A hammer has meaning only in terms of its intended usage, and that same hammer does not contain any traces of other tools, such as stepladders, that might be necessary to perform the acts for which the hammer is used Stumpf, What our society refers to as knowledge and truth are results of processes of negotiation carried out amongst people considered experts in their fields. The academic community internally regulates which new understandings are recognized by using peer-review processes where experts in different fields evaluate whether the new interpretations reach an acceptable level.
Academics also try to promote the reliability of their views of reality by, for example, creating ranking lists for publications in which new knowledge is published, citation indices, or by other means showing the impact, and thus credibility, of their findings. Theoreticians use words to describe how the event, business, community, non-governmental organization, destination, or whichever stakeholder acted as the practical component, changed their practices in some way and how those new ways of acting, analysing, or understanding practical matters led to, or at least could lead to, a better functioning environment.
Both are dependent on an established common language, and an understanding of set features. Education is generally given value for the goodness it brings to the individual who is its recipient, but even more importantly through the increased value that individual represents to the society in which they will function after the education is completed. Different nations set different policies for how to achieve increased educational goals, and invest differently in education as a whole. Both the PPE and the curriculum space models incorporate how different stakeholders involved in the curriculum process place different values on different learning outcomes, based on what they consider being of worth to their own interest spheres.
Depending on the power that stakeholders participating in the curriculum development process have in arguing for the value of specific outcomes, the curriculum space is shaped and positioned. Finland is a nation-state in northern Europe that gained its independence in after having been under the rule of Russia since , and before that under Swedish rule.
Spatial Theories of Education | Policy and Geography Matters | Taylor & Francis Group
The educational system bears influences from the Swedish system, but has also evolved on its own into a model nowadays benchmarked by many nations around the world. The reason for these benchmarking exercises in recent years is that international comparative studies have shown that students completing Finnish compulsory education achieve amongst the best results globally Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, undated.
The reason this is noteworthy is that all education in Finland is state funded, and that very few private schools exist that would skew the results in favour of more intensive funding opportunities. Finland has always spent a comparatively large amount of its gross domestic product GDP on education 6.
Though, with education being state funded there is also a strong control by the Department of Education on student numbers enrolled. Finland is geographically a relatively large nation in Europe with the eighth largest landmass, but with a comparatively small population, approximately 5. The northernmost region of Finland, Lapland, which this case will focus on, is geographically the largest part of Finland. Societal changes in the late s and early s resulted in a major exodus of the younger population to the south of Finland and to Sweden to get jobs in factories Lassila, The population remained, thanks to state investments, relatively stable at approximately , between and when, in connection with a financial slump, the Finnish state was forced to cut down on subventions to regional areas.
The population in Lapland has since decreased steadily to the current ,, and until recently the only growing regions were the regional urban centres. The following 30 years saw that number decrease to 5, in Lapin liitto, This was active from to Arkistolaitos, undated. NYT, The educational focus of the school started evolving in the early s with a move away from its agricultural matron-roots towards a stronger focus on preparing students for careers in production kitchens. By Levi-Instituutti was incorporated into Lapin Matkailuoppilaitos — Lapland Tourism College, with campuses in two other districts.
This offered diplomas in hospitality, tourism and leisure. Students at MTI are enrolled, and eventually graduate, from the institutions offering the separate diplomas and degrees, but have, through their studies, opportunities to select learning modules offered at the other institutions, as well as to participate in project studies where student groups from different educational modes study together. Nation-states fund education that is considered to be of value to the society.
Societal changes took place in Finland during the rebuilding stage after the Second World War due to the loss of almost a full generation of men in the war. The impact of the post-war baby boom meant a further adjustment in society, and thus also education. The downturn in agriculture and forestry paved the way for a stronger emphasis on service professions. The s and s brought about further educational changes when the higher education sector expanded, with universities created in several regional capitals, and the former separate colleges being merged and centralized also to regional capitals.
A reform in the post-secondary education in the late s and early s saw the demerger of higher education courses from vocational schools and the creation of polytechnic universities, or in Finnish terms universities of applied science UAS Helakorpi, Lapland got its own university in with its home in Rovaniemi. Youth education was mostly offered only on campus, but together with expectations of lifelong learning, UAS adult education brought about more flexibility.
During the event, students from the different study groups receive different tasks, from practical operational tasks for vocational students, supervisory tasks for UAS students, and planning and development tasks for university students. The assessable items for the projects also differ for students from the different groups so that they fulfil the expectations of set curricula at each institution. Students from the vocational group of MTI need to demonstrate skills and competences achieved, students from the UAS do reflective pieces that underline how theories have been applied, or could have been applied at the event, and students from the university write reports that evaluate the event and plan how it could be enhanced in the future.
This important volume brings together seminal papers investigating the framework upon which the economic analysis of land markets is based, stretching from the earliest insights of the founding fathers to current debates and research.
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Contested landscapes refer to the complex dynamics between visible and invisible poverty and to competing strategies on how to address them. The book takes a path-dependent view on the development of post-welfare arrangements, devolution, and pluralism that are being shaped by both neoliberal mentality, solidarity and communitarian practices. Toward the end of the Second World War, Poland's annexation of eastern German lands precipitated one of the largest demographic upheavals in European history.
Edyta Materka travels to to her native village in these "Recovered Territories", where she listens carefully to rich oral histories told by original postwar Slavic settlers and remaining ethnic Germans who witnessed the metamorphosis of eastern Germany into western Poland.
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