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They do not use large ships, which lead us to understand that is the reason why they do not need to resort to other lands. There are neither mosquitoes nor caymans, and poisonous bugs were not spotted. We saw small dogs like ours and learned about the existence of larger ones, as well as of a larger kind of cat, and of the existence of cows and buffalos. There are many nutmegs, which is a valued spice, and their pulp is valuable to make sugar. It is possible to make silk with the leaves of a tree called obo. Silver has also been spotted, though not in large amounts.

It is said there are many metals. As far as I can see, I may reasonably say that such gentle, healthy and fertile soil will bear fruit. There is a range of large stones and timbers to found a very large city by the sea, by the port and by a river, on a plain and near mountain ranges and ravines, well designed to breed, plant and sow everything produced in Europe and the Indies. Judging by the disposition mentioned before, there is no livelier or more open port, with all the requisites to be considered as such, without any known disadvantage, with good space for a shipyard and deep enough to launch many ships in different directions, near a forest full of strong timbersfor curved ribs, breast hooks, high and thick masts, straight trees for planks and masts, and poles.

There is no land that by itself can later sustain so many people so generously — if what has been written is considered — or has everything that this land has so close together at hand, in front of a port and so close to seven populated islands that cover two hundred leagues of apparently the same quality, or has such large and good signs to be searched for and found, without hollow spots or other accidents, almost half way to known populated islands and an apt port of call. I have not seen any in my voyages or had any such news. This land is 1, leagues away from the City of Kings, 1, from Acapulco and 1, from the Philippines.

Its height is between 15 and 17 degrees, and we may expect twice as much at 20, 30 and 40 degrees. I say that even if it is no better than what has been seen, it mainly is worth populating; otherwise it would be impossible to discover the remaining territories, or gain any insight into so many varied things.

Without considering the above mentioned territories,sixteen other islands were discovered at 10, 12, 13 and 14 degrees, and at different distances. Five of them are populated and it is assumed that another four we could not sail to are populated as well.

Miriam Estensen | LibraryThing

The Indians from Taumaco Island gave us news of more than 60 major and minor islands populated by black people, by whites with very long and very blond hair, by mulattos and by Indians — people like the one we saw now. It is to be believed that they did not create themselves, nor did those men — that land, that silver or the rest of the things I saw. They also mentioned there is a mainland, and it is understood to be the same as what we saw. After he learned how to make himself understood in our language, Pedro, the Indian that I brought from those areas, corroborated what was said, and gave us news of very large pearls and of large shells capable of housing them, and of very beautiful white women that cover themselves with thin cloaks.

He also gave us news of that large land and of a very good port, of great rivers, high mountain ridges, many people, many kinds of food, and a large number of nutmegs. In short, there is a quarter of the whole Globe to be discovered there. I refer to documents on all this, and to a committee of mathematicians and practical people, for apart from what was said before, there is a lot to be said and noted, and we can find out there.

In many places, there are many great soldiers, and they are people who can sustain themselves on very little and can make use of very much. There are also many ships equipped with what is necessary for sailing, and there are many good supplies from different sources whose durability I have experimented. The weather, the wind and the journey from El Callao to those lands is known to us, and for this reason I say always from the best point of view on everything that at present it is convenient to organise this journey from the City of Kings and nowhere else, because its port is two leagues long — greatly convenient for what is required — and the most that can be offered at the time of dispatch.

After this is understood, Sir, the first thing that has to be done is to raise a thousand men because there is plenty to assign them to, plenty to sustain them with and plenty to accommodate them in. Many of them should be married and all of them will go without earning a wage, with the sole exception of sailors, who will receive pay for eight or more months. A hundred sailors that will remain on land will be paid for a year and there will also be ship carpenters and caulkers. Ships will be needed to take these one thousand men with enough supplies for a year, increasing the need of hardtack and flour for longer.

Two small boats to lead the way at nighttime whenever necessary, and after reaching port they may be sent out to make discoveries.

  1. Engineering and Economic Applications of Complementarity Problems (SIAM Review, Vol. 39, No. 4, Dec. 1997, pp. 669-713)?
  2. Terra Australis Incognita: The Spanish Quest for the Mysterious Great South Land by Miriam Estensen.
  3. Byte (March 1986).
  4. Terra Australis - Wikipedia.
  5. If We Survive.
  6. Terra Australis incognita: The Spanish quest for the mysterious great south land [Book Review].

Some artillery, a few muskets and several reinforced arquebuses with gunpowder for two or three years, and as much rope as necessary for a year, for there is plenty that can be used to make more over there. Also, some spears, spiked sticks and a few round shields, because it is possible to make more over there. A large amount of iron planks and every kind of tool for factories, plants, sown fields and mines; sets of nails, oakum, tar and sails to build two large ships later and load them with everything the earth offers, later to be sent to Lima and to Mexico for the purpose of building other ships and brigs to start the transport.

Some cattle and thoroughbred stock. Two mills or stills in case it becomes necessary to desalinate seawater in the way I have already done it. On land they will serve the purpose of extracting wine out of palms, and they can also be used to make salt if need be. Two copper ovens and other implements made of this metal, and more iron for ordinary service.

Within this genre

Vests, underpants and taffeta skirts in the colours of China. Bells, necklaces and other garmentsto wear and to please the Indians, as well as for bartering with them. Twelve or more discalced monks from the Order of St Francis, four of them well learned in church wardrobe and ornaments, and four small bells. A doctor and two surgeons so that one of them can go to what is on offer, pharmacy medications and John of God brothers to cure the sick and to start hospitals.

There must be other patents addressed to all the ministers in Y. They should stipulate punishments to pay for all the damages befalling due to delays or other causes, be it in the service of God, Your Majesty, Royal and private assets, plus everything that is my part and right. They should state a manner and form on how the punishment should be executed.

They should be free and respond to this Royal Council, and should include other points to protect me against the dangers I have run so many times on the good service of Y. Majesty, because none of them have been greater or more ordinary. Once the service of God has been done, and that the ships and people have arrived at that St.

Philip and Santiago St. James Harbour, later on and always with mature counsel in every respect, a square and strong house will be built, surrounded by a fence, by one of the two rivers, so that people can take shelter in it. The necessary supplies should be available for sustenance. A large area should be sown with corn and rice, and many other of our pulses, seeds and roots, which are very good.

Burning such sown area should not be allowed, nor pruned with the same ease as the others. We will rescue as many pigs as possible and breed them on our own. After having achieved a deep understanding and relationship, using the news given by the Indians as well as the current state and form of government, all the samples that can be searched for and found with diligence, and one of those natives, different notices will be sent at different times to Lima and Mexico, so that Y.

Majesty remains fully informed and can order to remove or add whatever is convenient, so that this mission can be continued and finished in such a way that the present becomes magnificent and that the future can be expected to be substantially better. I remind Y. Supposing that the service to God has been done, should this mission achieves the state described before, and should there be a just manner — though this cannot be stated in the present — for how much these people could or should contribute to our people as fief for all the due obligations on our part towards them, it seems that such benefits will befell later than expected without this means.

Terra Australis Incognita: The Spanish quest for the mysterious Great South Land.

In each of the cities to be founded, it is possible to divide revenue and lands in such a way that God Our Lord and Lord of everything receives the largest share. What I mean is that in the present and the future there will be churches, convents, hospitals, widows, orphans and maidens to marry off, poor inhabitants to sustain, many other needs to meet and many affairs to direct, help, preserve and increase — in other words, the fourteen works of mercy.

It can be of great help owed to the natives if we looked for the most effective way to help them leave behind the blindness they live in, without the divine light of the Holy Gospel, so as to make sure that entering such a sea of compassion does not drown them and they can navigate it smoothly and prosperously until they surge into such a life and death that the Church prays for them, and Y. In short, how to hastily become second Spaniards in all policy related matters and in the enjoyment of another thousand advantages.

It can be made public that all the people who want to go and become deserving of that population by being honourable, and to make use of their consciousness and mine securely, since I am the one who persuades and considering that this will be the basis of such a mission, I limit myself to what I can say or write. It can be made public that in order to make Y. The City of Kings and Mexico should be looked at with great attention. Both of them are said to have more than , inhabitants including the natives. Then, those , or as many as they were should be considered. They have neither a leg to stand on nor guidance.

One should rightly wonder on whose account are the dangers that so many people run, without any assets, controls or moderating influences, to whose faults do the ones go while the others rush. They are a force to be stopped, or else it will crash against a hard wall, either today or tomorrow, and this, either in a dissolute life, or in a life at fault, or in a sick life, where everybody runs the risk of losing either their soul, or their insight, or of earning their suffering, or of dying of pure hardship, or if such hardship damagestheir health, added to all these damages that disfigure a Republic, born from disorder, with the possibility of there being less damages and more benefits when we seek to do good by means of good order.

This mission is the greatest in the present and in the future. I advise Y. I mean to say that Y. I note that those who know well say that the decline in the Western Indies stemmed mostly from the fact that the system of granting land and native inhabitants to a settler was discontinued, and that such settlers took advantage of it too hastily.

I also concur that if Y. Generosity and freedom are very necessary, based on the granting of land and natives to individual settlers, all the while preventing their owners from saying that they are masters of Indians, for it is possible to give every one of them their due by banishing forced personal service and allowing voluntary service. With all these favours, Y. For all of that, and with the utmost humility and trust, I beg Y. There is a handwritten note on the left margin of the page: " When it was learnt in he was distributing them beyond the court the King ordered all memorials to be recalled.

This third presentation memorial provides five reasons rebutting objections against settling in the Austral Lands. They being defence needs of the Spanish empire, financial resources, money already spent, focus of conversions on South America and the lack of Spanish migrants. A very rare foundation document of Australia.

My Lord, After I discovered the unknown Southern territories, mainly since I wanted them to be populated, being one thing and the other very convenient and necessary, an obligation in the service of God and Y. The first one, Sir, is that Y.

On this I can only say, Sir, that if the small extension of our Spain is measured, what will be found is that if we consider its totality, it will amount to the same as comparing a little fingernail to a whole human body, and for this reason it is worth considering how such a small portion of land with so very few natives worked so many and such great wonders in so many far away lands. It should be pointed out that now when the government — lifeblood of all possessions — is questioned, it appears that Our Lord desires to show how much can be done with so little, and that by force He wants Y.

I beg Y. Even earthly Princes may feel angered if the rewards they grant are not considered, and if the favours they do — however small — are not willingly received. For all these reasons, as well as for those I do not say, I effectively implore Y.


I also remind you that millions of inconveniences and difficulties that I experienced so often did not wear me down, even though I was always so lonely and contradicted, devoid of means and short of money, and if only one of them defeated me, I did not defeat so many, nor did I say what was done, which I estimate even more than if I owned the two richest provinces in Asia, China and Persia.

In short, Sir, I went ahead, trusting God, and for this very reason I even conquered bad will. Sir, the second reason is that it is said that Y.

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My response to this is that God Our Lord made Y. I can prove it because in the Provinces of America, Y. Africa, Brazil and the islands in the ocean give all the wealth in them.