Bush also appointed Lt. Douglas Lute, an active duty general, to his policymaking team.
More recently, President Barack Obama selected a former commandant of the Marine Corps as his national security adviser, and appointed Gen. John Allen to work on the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. There Allen played a key part in the negotiations from to and spearheaded the development of solutions to Israeli security concerns.
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Second, civil-military collaboration has long been institutionalized in the policymaking process. This became particularly pronounced with the passage of the National Security Act of While the law subordinated the military to a civilian secretary of defense, it also streamlined the national security apparatus, officially incorporating military personnel into the foreign policy decisionmaking process. That generals were involved in decisionmaking at the operational and strategic levels is perhaps unsurprising.
But the new process also cleared the way for the JCS and DoD to influence grand strategy and policy planning.
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The policymaking power of the military was further institutionalized with the Goldwater-Nichols Act of This change was intended to ensure that the JCS provide broad, objective advice to the president. The influence of the JCS varies with each president, but the law ensured that service chiefs would act as general advisers rather than as representatives of their respective services. Scholars Eliot A.
Some argue that the problem with military influence in policymaking is that officers tend to see foreign affairs purely through the security lens. That military personnel effectively lack a sufficient understanding of diplomatic and political tools, and are thus more inclined to rely on force to conduct statecraft.
Military personnel today experience unprecedented exposure to professionals in other agencies and organizations. Strategies in Iraq and Afghanistan incorporated a number of different civilian- mil teams, such as the provincial reconstruction teams PRTs.
Bringing military personnel together with expert scholars and representatives from the U. Further, State Department political advisers are now embedded in combatant commands, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and many civil servants are included at centers of professional military education, like the military war colleges.
Combatant commanders oversee all assets in their respective areas of operation, coordinating all military, diplomatic, intelligence, and even development assets in their commands. When disaster struck, the head of the U. Pacific Command, Adm. Officers are also trained managers within a bureaucracy. Many are responsible for millions of dollars in equipment even as junior officers. While military personnel do inevitably lack the congressional contacts of seasoned political operatives, an officer is no less likely to have such contacts as other siloed national security professionals, such as foreign service officers.
In this way, the real question is whether positions such as secretary of defense are best filled by national security experts or political figures. Service academies have adopted a liberal arts curriculum. The service academies now host prestigious conferences on foreign policymaking and national leadership, such as the Service Conference on U.
In this way, the academies provide an excellent foundation for national public service. Furthermore, these opportunities represent a commitment to developing officers as scholars of foreign affairs and grand strategy. This training is also reinforced through post-graduate and mid-career opportunities. While officers have a wide variety of opportunities to learn tactical skills at schools such as Ranger School and Airborne School, they are also encouraged to develop their understanding of U. Currently not compatible with Amazon Kindle.
The warrior state: how military organization structures politics.
Putting into question the conventional view that the military is detrimental to democratic development, Dolman provides a multifaceted examination of the institutional incentives of the military and its relations with civilian authorities. Drawing on classical political theory, a wide range of historical examples, and statistical findings, The Warrior State argues that the military can facilitate democracy as the result of specific norms and conditions that focus on individual action.
Ironically, this may be best inculcated through a focus on the offensive, precisely the military doctrine commonly seen as most likely to result in international conflict. The paradox of offensive strategies possibly increasing international conflict while also enhancing democracy, which is supposed to decrease such conflict, from a core of this provocative book. Palgrave Macmillan. From award-winning research which changes the world to textbooks and study guides which educate and inspire, we publish across the humanities, social sciences and business for academics, students, professionals and librarians worldwide.
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